Validity and objectivity of tests

Expert Services.Expert services are those where an accounting firm’s specialized knowledge and expertise is used to support the audit client’s positions in an adversarial proceeding. An accountant is prohibited from providing expert opinions or other services to an audit client, or a legal representative of an audit client, for the purpose of advocating that audit client’s interests in litigation or administrative and regulatory proceedings. The accountant would be free, however, to provide factual accounts in the form of lay testimony for explanatory purposes. Further, an accounting firm is free to perform internal investigations or fact-finding engagements to assist the audit committee or its legal counsel in fulfilling its responsibilities. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act applies only to registered public accounting firms alone, and does not seek to regulate those small and medium-sized accounting firms that do not perform audits of public companies.

Further, such tax services could be a violation of other SEC rules on auditor independence, where, for example, the firm represents the audit client before tax court or federal court of claims. An accounting firm is prohibited from providing to an audit client any service that could only be provided by someone licensed to practice law in the jurisdiction in which the service is provided.

Whether they will prove effective and worth the burden will be determined in the years, and hopefully bull markets, to come. For purposes of the rule, audit procedures are deemed to have commenced for the current audit engagement period the day after the prior year’s periodic annual report is filed with the SEC. The cooling off period must be one year, and in order to comply, the firm must complete one annual audit after the individual was a member of the audit engagement team.

Committee Members and Chapter Leaders

The set value of a final accounts presented to managements depends heavily on basic assumptions which are been presented by the accountant. “Accounting is like any other form of human activity is governed by different principle” (Edward 1964). In most cases the fairness of disclosed information are been judged by external auditors. However, evaluators may point out that this is sufficient reason why accounting cannot be objective. Agreeably a wide range of basic assumptions and forecasts may be made when preparing the economic information and the emotional factors which may determine an observer’s attitude do create difficulties.

This rule is based on the notion that an individual cannot be both a zealous advocate for the client’s management and maintain the objectivity required for an audit. Conclusion – This article has sought to provide a summary of the final auditor independence rules. These rules were the subject of significant debate during the rulemaking process, and will surely be subject to further criticism as they begin to be implemented. However, public companies and registered public accounting firms will likely take very seriously these rules, in view of the Act’s harsh criminal penalties. These rules have been implemented in order to protect auditor independence from management pressure and influence for the purpose of restoring public confidence in the veracity of public company disclosures.


First, firms are required to disclose to audit committees all critical accounting policies and practices. If a conflict is created through merger or acquisition, the rule does not apply.

In developing rules on partner rotation, the rule has classified partners into different levels and established rules for each level of partner. The lead and concurring partners are required to rotate after five years, and then are subject to a five year “time out” period where they cannot perform services for that audit client.

Further, the rule has provided an exception for emergency or unusual circumstances. The SEC has addressed conflicts of interest arising where an audit partner receives compensation based on the act of selling non-audit services to the client. Small Firm Exception – In response to a significant number of comments, the SEC adopted a small-firm exception from the partner rotation rules. Audit firms that have fewer than five audit clients that are public companies, and have fewer than ten partners, are exempted from partner rotation rules.

C. Partner Rotation – An audit engagement team is defined as all partners and professional employees participating in an audit, review, or attestation engagement of an audit client. To preserve independence and maintain quality of audit services, Congress included in section 203 of the Act a requirement that audit partners “rotate off” of a particular client engagement after a specific period of time.

Generally, then, the rules discussed here apply only to those accounting firms that perform audits for publicly traded companies. An accounting firm may not provide any service related to the audit client’s information system, unless it is reasonable to conclude that the results of these services will not be subject to audit procedures during an audit of the client’s financial statements. For example, an accounting firm would be permitted to work on hardware or software systems that are unrelated to the audit client’s financial statements or accounting records as long as those services are pre-approved by the audit committee.

When performing professional services requiring independence, a member shall also comply with rule 101 [ET section 101.01] of the Code of Professional Conduct. The member should consider documenting his or her understanding of the facts, the accounting principles involved, the application of those principles to the facts, and the parties with whom these matters were discussed. Third, the SEC also requires disclosure to the committee of material written communications, such as management representation letters, engagement letters, independence letters, reports on internal controls, and schedules of unadjusted audit differences.

Accounting Topics

These firms still must be subject to a full review by the Board at least once every three years, however. An accountant is prohibited from acting as a director, officer, or employee of an audit client or performing any decision-making, supervisory, or ongoing monitoring function for the audit client.

  • In developing rules on partner rotation, the rule has classified partners into different levels and established rules for each level of partner.
  • C. Partner Rotation – An audit engagement team is defined as all partners and professional employees participating in an audit, review, or attestation engagement of an audit client.

If no such committee of the board exists, the committee is deemed to be the entire board of directors of the client. It is impermissible for an accounting firm to perform brokerage, investment advising, or investment banking services for an audit client.

Core Objectives of Accounting

This helps ensure that the financial reporting and audits are done objectively. Since investors and creditors rely on auditor’s reports, the reports should be independent. If management or current shareholders wrote reports and audits, they would tend to be too optimistic and not rely on pure facts.

It cannot serve as an unregistered broker-dealer, promoter, underwriter, make investment decisions for an audit client, or otherwise have discretionary authority over an audit client’s investments. Doing so is incompatible with the auditor’s responsibility to ensure that the client’s financial condition is fairly presented to the public. The rule does not prohibit the firm from providing these services when they are for non-financial reporting purposes. If an auditor firm provided bookkeeping services for an audit client, it would later be placed in the position of auditing its own work, and therefore would lack independence.

The objectivity principle extends to internal auditors and CPA firms as well. Although auditors must adhere to GAAS, auditors must be independent of the company they are auditing.

This includes discussions of the ramifications of the use of such alternative treatments and the treatment preferred by the accounting firm. The most common way to ensure organizational independence is by the chief audit executive having a dual-reporting relationship with a senior manager (CEO or CFO) and the audit committee of the Board of Directors. This dual-reporting relationship ensures that, if the chief audit executive feels pressure or undue influence from management, they have a reporting line to the audit committee that can help resolve their concerns. Objectivity in accounting is essential for accountants of an organisation when reporting the financial worth of the business.

What is an example of objectivity?

January 03, 2020. The objectivity principle is the concept that the financial statements of an organization be based on solid evidence. The intent behind this principle is to keep the management and the accounting department of an entity from producing financial statements that are slanted by their opinions and biases.

Accountants are urged to use proper discretion regarding what written communications should be provided to the audit committees. Second, accounting firms are also required to communicate to the audit committee, either orally or in writing, all alternative treatments within generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for policies and practices related to material items that have been discussed with management.

Independence is the freedom from conditions that threaten the ability of the internal audit activity to carry out internal audit responsibilities in an unbiased manner. To achieve the degree of independence necessary to effectively carry out the responsibilities of the internal audit activity, the chief audit executive has direct and unrestricted access to senior management and the board. Threats to independence must be managed at the individual auditor, engagement, functional, and organizational levels.

While dual-reporting helps ensure organizational independence, it is also important for auditors to have independence during each engagement they conduct. While management sets the tone for audit independence, auditors must also look at the relationship between auditors and their clients. For example, if an employee from the accounts payable department recently joined the internal audit department and they are now part of an audit of the same department, the chief audit executive will want to make sure that employee feels independent from their former manager. 1130.C2 – If internal auditors have potential impairments to independence or objectivity relating to proposed consulting services, disclosure must be made to the engagement client prior to accepting the engagement.

The rules also prohibit an accounting firm from searching for employee candidates, performing reference checks of candidates, engaging in testing or evaluation programs, or recommending a specific candidate for a specific job. While typically not complicated by a direct reporting relationship, client managers may still jeopardize independence if the auditor has been, or might be, an employee working for the manager.

These situations are good examples of developing and fostering organizational independence for audit isn’t only a structural issue, but is also something management needs to clearly support through their own actions. Furthermore, in the performance of any professional service, a member shall comply with rule 102 [ET section 102.01], which requires maintaining objectivity and integrity and prohibits subordination of judgment to others.

ET Section 102
Integrity and Objectivity

As a result, all bookkeeping services, such as maintaining accounting records, preparing financial statements, or preparing source data, are prohibited from being performed by an auditing firm. A narrow exception allows such services where it is reasonable to conclude that the results would not be subject to audit.

Other audit partners are required to rotate after no more than seven years and be subject to a two year time-out period. An accounting firm is permitted to provide tax services such as tax compliance, tax planning, and tax advice to audit clients; doing so is not deemed a violation of auditor independence. It should be noted that such permitted services cannot be performed without pre-approval by the audit committee.